Volume 75, Issue 3 e13494
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Wheat straw and microbial inoculants have an additive effect on N2O emissions by changing microbial functional groups

Cheng Ji

Cheng Ji

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

Contribution: Conceptualization, Writing - original draft

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Jidong Wang

Corresponding Author

Jidong Wang

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Correspondence

Jidong Wang, National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Email: [email protected]

Contribution: Supervision

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Yuxiang Sun

Yuxiang Sun

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Contribution: Data curation

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Cong Xu

Cong Xu

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

Contribution: Visualization

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Jie Zhou

Jie Zhou

College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Contribution: Software

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Yuehua Zhong

Yuehua Zhong

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

Contribution: ​Investigation

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Yunwang Ning

Yunwang Ning

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

Contribution: Validation

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Hui Zhang

Hui Zhang

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

Contribution: Data curation

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Yongchun Zhang

Yongchun Zhang

National Agricultural Experimental Station for Agricultural Environment, Luhe, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Contribution: Validation, Visualization

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Yinglong Chen

Yinglong Chen

The UWA Institute of Agriculture, and School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

Contribution: Supervision

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First published: 22 May 2024

Abstract

Straw-decomposing microbial inoculants (MIs) have been increasingly applied to straw-amended soils. However, the interactive effects and underlying microbial mechanisms of straw and decomposing MIs on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remain unclear. Here, a pot experiment with an Aquic Inceptisol was conducted to determine soil N2O emissions and the abundance and composition of microbial functional genes under six amendments: wheat straw (W), Bacillus subtilis MI (B), Streptomyces rochei MI (S), a combination of straw and B. subtilis MI (WB), a combination of straw and S. rochei MI (WS), and a control without wheat straw or MI (C). Compared with the control, the amendments of straw, decomposing MIs, and their combinations decreased soil N2O emissions by 43%, 22–30%, and 46–60%, respectively. Mechanistically, the positive relationship between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and soil potential nitrification rate (PNR), along with decreased AOB abundance (−36%) following straw and decomposing MI amendments, further suggested that AOB predominated soil nitrification and was responsible for the suppressed nitrification. In addition, straw amendment increased nirK gene abundance (by 48%) and potential denitrification rate (by 11%), while the increase in nosZI gene abundance (+25%) involved in N2O consumption contributed to the decrease in N2O emissions. Overall, the additive effect of straw and decomposing MIs on soil N2O emissions was associated with two amendment-induced changes in the abundance and composition of AOB and straw-stimulated the abundance of the nosZI gene. Our results revealed the potential for mitigating N2O emissions following the amendments of straw and MI by influencing soil N2O-related microbial groups.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.